In developing societies, particularly those experiencing high levels of insecurity, research and policy have focused on governance deficits not least the challenges of systems and weaknesses of institutions. This cluster examines the interaction between leadership and institutions, not least through the state, and how this impacts on security and development outcomes. While the importance of leadership is sometimes emphasised by analysts, its essential role in building and maintaining institutions to ensure development and security is often taken for granted. It is often assumed that a strong institution will promote good leaders experience across developing societies suggests that this is not the natural order of things. This research cluster also engages the phenomenon of leadership – both conceptually and operationally – conducts in-depth analyses of a range of situations in developing societies to see how leadership processes and decisions have shaped the outcomes for these societies.